Top 11 Split Commands To Break Large File Into Small Files

Top 11 Split Commands To Break Large File Into Small Files

The split command is used to break the large files into a small file in Linux. Let’s see, top 11 split commands to break the large files. when you use the command it will use ‘x‘ as a prefix before a file which it has split.

We can use split command to split the files into parts in Linux. We have shown you file splitter using the examples and options in Linux.

Example 1: Suppose we have a file with tarball with a name “split.tar.gz” I will split all the files into small using the command.

split split.tar.gz

root@ubuntu:~# split split.tar.gz 
root@ubuntu:~# ls -l
total 24
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Mar 22 14:30 split
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5716 Mar 22 14:31 split.tar.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5716 Mar 22 14:31 xaa
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3750 Mar 22 14:23 xab

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Example 2: We can change the suffix length using “-a” option.

split -a4 split.tar.gz

root@ubuntu:~# split -a4 split.tar.gz 
root@ubuntu:~# ls -l
total 200
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 101867 Mar 22 14:39 split.tar.gz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 101867 Mar 22 14:39 xaaaa

Example 3: We can split the file with ‘–verbose options.

split abcd —verbose

root@ubuntu:~# split abcd --verbose
creating file 'xaa'
root@ubuntu:~# ls -l
total 108
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 748 Mar 22 14:43 abcd
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 748 Mar 22 14:43 xaa

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Example 4: We will split the file with a custom line number with ‘-l‘ options. I will split files with 10 lines per file.

split -l 10 abcd.txt –verbose

root@ubuntu:~# split -l 10 abcd.txt --verbose
creating file 'xaa'
creating file 'xab'
creating file 'xac'
creating file 'xad'
creating file 'xae'
root@ubuntu:~# ls -l
total 124
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1165 Mar 22 14:49 abcd.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 327 Mar 22 14:49 xaa
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 300 Mar 22 14:49 xab
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 251 Mar 22 14:49 xac
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 284 Mar 22 14:49 xad
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3 Mar 22 14:49 xae

Example 5: We can split the file with size by using ‘b’ options. I have created a 40mb file using fallocate command.

root@ubuntu:~# fallocate -l +40M test
root@ubuntu:~# split -b 20M test --verbose
creating file 'xaa'
creating file 'xab'
root@ubuntu:~# ls -lh | tail -n +2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 40M Mar 22 16:57 test
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 20M Mar 22 16:57 xaa
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 20M Mar 22 16:57 xab

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Example 6: We can split the file with the size and prefix given to the split files. The prefix is myfile instead of prefix ‘x‘.

root@ubuntu:~# split --bytes=20M test myfile
root@ubuntu:~# ls -l
total 81924
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 20971520 Mar 22 17:07 myfileaa
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 20971520 Mar 22 17:07 myfileab
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 41943040 Mar 22 16:57 test

Example 7: We can split the file with a number like 00,01 etc instead of a name like aa, ab, etc with the-doption.

root@ubuntu:~# split -d test --verbose
creating file 'x00'
root@ubuntu:~# ls -l
total 81924
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 41943040 Mar 22 16:57 test
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 41943040 Mar 22 17:12 x00

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Example 8: We can generate n chunks of output files with ‘-n’ options.

root@ubuntu:~# split -n 2 test --verbose
creating file 'xaa'
creating file 'xab'
root@ubuntu:~# ls -l
total 81924
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 41943040 Mar 22 16:57 test
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 20971520 Mar 22 17:32 xaa
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 20971520 Mar 22 17:32 xab

Example 9: We can avoid zero-sized chunks using ‘-e’ options.

root@ubuntu:~# split -n 2 -e test 
root@ubuntu:~# ls -l
total 81924
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1165 Mar 22 14:49 abcd.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 41943040 Mar 22 16:57 test
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 20971520 Mar 22 17:36 xaa
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 20971520 Mar 22 17:36 xab

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Example 10: We can split a big file and merge it into a single file.

I have a file created with 1.1G and I was not able to copy on the remote location as of its size. I will split the size and merge it into the single file on a remote location using cat command. 

root@ubuntu:~# du -sh file.iso 
1.1G file.iso

Split the file into 600M using the below commands. 

root@ubuntu:~# split -b 600M file.iso myfile
root@ubuntu:~# ls -l
total 2179084
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1165 Mar 22 14:49 abcd.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1115684864 Mar 22 17:41 file.iso
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 629145600 Mar 22 17:45 myfileaa
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 486539264 Mar 22 17:45 myfileab

Now I will merge this split file into a single file.

root@ubuntu:~# cat myfilea* > file.iso
root@ubuntu:~# du -sh file.iso 
1.1G file.iso

Example 11: Verify the integrity of checksum. 

root@ubuntu:~# md5sum file.iso 
0318dc8fddd6d8ab48ff1d6dd56e14b3 file.iso

root@centos:~# md5sum file.iso 
0318dc8fddd6d8ab48ff1d6dd56e14b3 file.iso

You’re done split command in linux file top 11

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